The prognostication for the year of our lorde, 1559
In his essay about the Recueil des Présages Prosaïques (RPP), dr. Halbronn noted that Chevignard’s Présages de Nostradamus does not contain a facsimile of one of Nostradamus’ Almanachs.1 Présages de Nostradamus contains two Pronostication-facsimiles: La grand’ pronostication nouvelle avec portenteuse prediction, pour l’an M.D.LVII  (published in 1557 in Paris by Jacques Kerver) and Pronostication nouvelle, pour l’an Mil cinq cens cinquante & huict (published in Paris by Guillaume le Noir). An English translation of the thirteen Présages for 1559, published in An Almanacke for the yeare of our Lorde God, 1559, is also included.
The subject of this essay is the booklet The Prognostication of Maister Michael Nostradamus, Doctour in Phisick. In Province for the year of our Lorde, 1559. With the predictions and presages of every moneth.2
The contents of the 1559-Progno-GB
The 1559-Progno-GB is an English translation of the predictions for each month in 1559 in the 1559-Almanach-F. The word prognostication in the title of the 1559-Progno-GB means prediction. It does not refer to La Grand Pronostication nouvelle avecques la declaration ample de 1559, another book by Nostradamus with predictions for 1559.
According to the title page, the 1559-Progno-GB was published in Antwerp. Some English authors qualify the 1559-Progno-GB as a pirate edition and state that it was printed secretly in London, despite the publishing rights of Henry Sutton, who printed the Almanacke for the yeare of our Lorde God, 1559 in London on February 20, 1559.3
The 1559-Progno-GB opens with the predictions for January 1559 and ends with the ones for December 1559.
The 1559-Progno-GB does not contain an introduction letter. In the 1559-Commentaires, item #2 refers to such a letter (Epistre Liminaire). This letter precedes the predictions. In the 1559-Commentaires, there is no reference to its date.4
The 1559-Progno-GB does not contain the thirteen Présages for 1559 or the calendars for each month. These calendars contain noon lunar longitude tables for each day, dates and times of lunar phases and aphorisms about e.g. weather or politics. The Présages and calendars are translated from the 1559-Almanach-F and published in the 1559-Almanacke-GB. In the 1559-Almanacke-GB, the Présage for each month is printed above each calendar. In the 1557-Almanach-F, the February 1557 calendar is produced in the same way: the Présage for February 1557 above the February 1557 calendar.5
The emphasis in the 1559-Progno-GB lays on predictions, based upon lunar phases, completed with predictions, based upon quartercharts and aspects. Most of the times, these predictions open with weather circumstances. Next, religious and political matters are discussed.
In the 1557-Prono-F and the 1558-Prono-F, the predictions are produced in a different order. First, a general prediction for the year is given, together with predictions for each season, based upon quartercharts and completed with astrological aspects. Then, beginning with January, predictions are given for each month, based upon lunar phases. Most of the time, the time and zodiacal longitude of these lunar phases is specified. The impact of the lunar phases is mostly on weather and environmental circumstances, whereas the quartercharts and astrological aspects deal with religious and political matters. Both books close with an Almanach-table which contains for example the dates of Easter, Ascension Day, Whitsunday and the beginning of the Advent.
There are two time spans in the 1557-Prono-F and the 1558-Prono-F. The first time span runs from March to March and deals with the quartercharts. The second time span runs from January until December and deals with the lunar phases. In the 1559-Progno-GB, there is only one time span, running from January 1559 until December 1559. There are a few predictions for the beginning of 1560.
A mixture of texts in the prediction for January 1559
The prediction for January 1559 contains ten lunar phases. In a month, the average number of lunar phases is four. This implies some kind of mistake in the prediction for January 1559. To find out the cause of this mistake, all lunar phase data were compared with AstroScoop data.6 The prediction for January 1559 opens with the Last Quarter on January 1, followed by the New Moon on January 9, the First Quarter on January 16 and the Full Moon on January 23. These data match with AstroScoop data.7 After the Full Moon on January 23, a Last Quarter follows, dated the 21. at 5.houres, passing the hed of the dragon wyth a quadryne aspect of Mercury. This date does not fit, since the Full Moon occurred on January 23. According to AstroScoop data, this Last Quarter occurred on December 21, 1559. In the 1559-Commentaires, the second line of this prediction is quoted in item #285 in the prediction for December; the third line is quoted in item #286.8 There is a reference to an impact of Mars in February that commeth. Since this reference is in a prediction for the Last Quarter on December 21, 1559, this reference points to February 1560. In the 1559-Commentaires, the closing quote from the predictions for December 1559 also contains a reference to February 1560.9
Next follows a prediction, based upon Jupiter: Iupiter in the 12. in his retrogradation, but yet afflicted by the quadrine aspect of Mars to Sagittarius… This Mars-Jupiter square (Mars: 17 Sagittarius, Jupiter retrograde: 17 Pisces, the twelfth sign of the Zodiac) occurred on August 10, 1559. In the 1559-Commentaires, this square is quoted in item #168 in the predictions for August.10 The remark about this square precedes a remark about a figure of the last time of the summer, in which Mars is in 8 and Jupiter in 12 is retrograde. In the 1559-Commentaires, this remark is quoted in item #170 in the predictions for August.11 The quote in item #171 (Le Soleil dans la IXe & la Lune dans la XIIe en Virgo, levez le cueur, Seigneurs, quell presage sera ce?) is not included in the 1559-Progno-GB. This item is also not included in the remaining predictions for August 1559 in the 1559-Progno-GB. Apparently, it got lost during the production of the 1559-Progno-GB.
The remark about the Mars-Jupiter square also precedes a First Quarter, dated the 10.daye at 4. of the clocke in the morninge, by another quadrine aspect of Mercury oriental. This is the First Quarter of August 10, 1559 (Sun: 27 Leo, Mercury: 22 Leo, Moon: 27 Scorpio). The next prediction is quoted in items #172-174 of the 1559-Commentaires, in the prediction for August.12 The reference to another Moon-Mercury square is quite peculiar. No Moon-Mercury square is discussed in the predictions for the previous months, except the one on December 21, 1559. In the 1559-Progno-GB, this square became mixed in the predictions for January 1559. The square of December 21, 1559 occurs after the square of August 10, 1559. The reference to it as a previous square does not fit chronologically and is due to the fact that the text became mixed.
A few lines further, a Full Moon is mentioned, dated the 18. daye at one of the clocke in the morning. 45 minutes. This is the Full Moon of August 18, 1559. This prediction includes an explanation of a Moon-Mercury opposition (Sun: 4 Virgo, Mercury: 7 Virgo, Moon: 4 Pisces). In the 1559-Commentaires, this explanation is quoted in item #177 in the prediction for August.13
Next to this Full Moon comes a First Quarter, dated the 6. at 11. houres in Pisces, in the head of the dragon by another quadrine aspect of Saturne to Mars. This First Quarter occurred on December 6, 1559 (Sun: 25 Sagittarius, Moon: 25 Pisces, conjunct the Caput Draconis on 26 Pisces, which explains the remark in the head of the dragon). Mars on 3 Pisces is in square with Saturn retrograde on 2 Gemini. In 1559, Saturn moved from 16 Taurus into the first decanate of Gemini and Mars moved from 10 Scorpio to 16 Pisces. Only on December 5, 1559, Mars was in square with Saturn. There was no preceding square between Mars and Saturn earlier that year. In the 1559-Progno-GB, such a preceding square is not discussed. The word another makes no sense.
The prediction for this First Quarter is that the enemies of France shall be ruined and subject to the French monarchy; Mars is favourable for France until 1565. In the 1559-Commentaires, this is quoted in items #265 and 266 in the prediction for December.14 Further comments regarding the impact of the Mars-Saturn square are quoted in item #277 in the prediction for December.15
Next to this First Quarter comes a Full Moon, dated the 14. at 7.houres.22.minutes, by certayne other sinister oppositions. This is the Full Moon on December 14, 1559 (Sun: 3 Capricorn, Moon: 3 Cancer). The other oppositions (the Moon is in full opposition with the Sun) are a Moon-Mercury opposition (Mercury: 29 Sagittarius) and a Moon-Venus retrograde opposition (Venus retrograde: 11 Capricorn). The predictions that follow are not quoted in the 1559-Commentaires.
Next comes a Last Quarter, dated the 30 of the moneth at noone. This Last Quarter occurred on January 30, 1559.
Table 1. Lunar phase data for January 1559 in the 1559-Progno-GB
|Day||Lunar phase||Other mentioned aspects||Status||True date|
|01||Last Quarter||-||Correct||January 01|
|09||New Moon||-||Correct||January 16|
|16||First Quarter||-||Correct||January 16|
|23||Full Moon||-||Correct||January 23|
|21||Last Quarter||Moon 90 Mercury. Caput Draconis?||False||December 21|
|-||-||Mars 90 Jupiter retrograde||Correct||August 10|
|10||First Quarter||Moon 90 Mercury||False||August 10|
|18||Full Moon||-||False||August 18|
|06||First Quarter||Moon 0 Caput Draconis, Mars 90 Saturn||False||December 06|
|14||Full Moon||Moon 180 Mercury, Moon 180 Venus||False||December 14|
|30||Last Quarter||-||Correct||January 30|
In the 1559-Commentaires, the predictions for August 10, August 18, December 6, and December 14 are situated on their proper places. Together with the results, obtained by means of AstroScoop Plus, this means that the production of the January chapter in the 1559-Progno-GB resulted in a mixture of texts, which partly belong to August 1559 and December 1559. A part of the prediction for August 1559 went lost. In order to maintain continuity, the mixed text was changed in one case.
In the 1559-Progno-GB, the chapters that deal with August and December 1559 are brief. Sizeable parts of the text of these chapters are included in the chapter about January 1559.
References to writing data
The 1559-Progno-GB contains four references to writing dates. The first reference is in the prediction for the Last Quarter on January 30, 1559. Its writing date: May 23, 1558:
And therefore this daie the 23.of May 1558.making suppotation of this present Ephemeris.
The second reference is in the prediction for the New Moon on July 5, 1559. This prediction was written in March 1558:
…from the houre that I make suppotation hereof, which is the first houre of midnight of the moneth of Marche 1558.for the yeare.1559.
The third reference is in the prediction for the Last Quarter on September 24, 1559. This prediction was written in May 1558:
Some great matter shalbefall, as well for this present yeare 1559 of for the rest of the yeare.1558.making supputation of this in May, it shalbe Salue victor Imperator, men shall returne into their proper place.
The fourth reference is in the closing lines of the prediction for December 1559. The last lines of this prediction contain a prayer, which is closed with a reference (in English and Latin) to April 27, 1558. This reference can therefore be interpreted as a reference to the finishing of the 1559-Progno-GB on April 27, 1558:
… but we will make an ende, praying continually the almighty and eternal god, to geve us grace to passe this yere that we wryte and the yere following 1560, that, if of his goodness he put not to his hand, we are like to see that whiche it maye please hym to defend us from, and that we may lyve in his favour and wyll.
From Salon of Craux in Provence, the 27.of Aprill. 1558.
Faciebat Michael Nostradamus Solonae petreae Provinciae. 27 Aprilis. 1558.
In the prediction for May 1559, a non-dated reference to a writing date is given:
… and from the time that I cast this present calculation long before I take daie and time as six monethes shall be strange and terrible matters.
Item #2 in the 1559-Commentaires contains a quote from an introduction letter (Epistre liminaire).16 The date of this letter is not given. Nostradamus usually wrote these introduction letters in spring.17 This letter is not included in the 1559-Progno-GB.
The 1559-Commentaires do not contain any of the writing data in the 1559-Progno-GB. Regarding May 23, 1559 in the 1559-Progno-GB, the preceding sentence can be read literally in #18 and the next sentence can be read literally in item #19.18 The reference itself is not included.
In the 1559-Progno-GB, a part of the prediction for the Last Quarter on September 24, 1559 reads:
Some great matter shalbefall, as well for this present yeare 1559 of for the rest of the yeare.1558.making supputation of this in May, it shalbe Salue victor Imperator, men shall returne into their proper place.
In the 1559-Commentaires, item #202 reads:
Et sera quelque grand cas tant pour l’année presente 1559 que pour le residu de l’an 1558.19
Item #202 closes the comments on the predictions for September 1559. The month of May is not given in item #202; neither the rest of the line.
In item #390 in the 1559-Commentaires, a reference to March 17, 1558 is quoted in a prediction for July 1559:
Une famille qui (comptant du temps que je suppute ceci, qu’est le 17 de Mars 1558)…20
On this date, March 17, 1558, predictions for July 1559 were written in the 1559-Prono-F.21 The prediction for July 5, 1559 in the 1559-Progno-GB, which is a translation of the 1559-Almanach-F, is also written in March 1558.
Table 2. References to writing dates
|Source text||Date of writing||Prediction for|
|1559-Progno-GB||March, 1558||July 05, 1559|
|1559-Progno-GB||April 27, 1558||Faciebat|
|1559-Progno-GB||May 23, 1558||January 30, 1559|
|1559-Progno-GB||May 1558||September 24, 1559|
|1559-Commentaires||March 17, 1558||July 1559|
The order of references to writing dates in table 2 is based on these dates. If they are correct and not subject to printer’s errors, they imply that the predictions are not worked out chronologically. The Faciebat, written on April 27, 1558, seems to have been written before the writing of all predictions was finished. From an astrological point of view, this is very uncommon. The most logic and efficient procedure to write predictions for a year, is to interpret the aspects as they occur chronologically throughout the year, starting with the aspects in January.
Theoretically, the mentioning of May in the 1559-Progno-GB can be due to a printer’s error, but no copy of the 1559-Almanach-F is available to verify this. If the text in the predictions for January 30 and September 24 in the 1559-Almanach-F reads Mars (March), one might assume that the writing of the 1559-Almanach-F began on or shortly before March 23, 1558, the day of writing of the prediction for the Last Quarter on January 30, 1559. Then, apart from the introduction letter, April 27, 1558 would be the day on which the writing of the 1559-Almanach-F was completed.
The correspondence with the reference to March 17, 1558 in the 1559-Prono-F seems to strengthen the assumption of a printer’s error.
The privilege for the 1559-Almanach-F was granted on October 7, 1558.22
Incompatible astrological sources
The 1559-Almanacke-GB and the 1559-Progno-GB contain dates and times of lunar phases. The notation of time differs entirely from the 1557-Prono-F and the 1558-Prono-F.23
In the 1557-Prono-F and the 1558-Prono-F, the notation of the time of lunar phases is in terms of 24 hours, counting from noon (12:00) to noon. In the case of for example the First Quarter on May 5, 1557, 2 heu means 2 p.m, i.e. 14:00, counting from midnight. In the case of the Full Moon on May 12, 1557, 22 heu means 22 hours after noon, May 12, 1557, i.e. May 13, 1557, 10:00, counting from midnight.24
There is no 24-hour notation in the calendars of the 1559-Almanacke-GB. A time after noon is marked with the letter a, a time after midnight with the letter b. In some cases, there are additional notes like in the morning or before noon. The kinds of lunar phases are marked by symbols.
In the 1559-Progno-GB, the time notation is the same as in the 1559-Almanacke-GB, but times between noon and midnight have no notes and no lunar phase symbols are used.
In the calendars of the 1559-Almanacke-GB, the noon longitude of the Moon is listed for each day. The lunar phase longitudes are not listed. In the 1559-Progno-GB, not one longitude of the Moon is given except for the Full Moon of January 23, 1559, 17:57 Local Time: 9:43 Leo, and June 12, 1559: Moon in Virgo. However, these are noon longitudes.25 Instead of calculating zodiacal longitudes by means of interpolation, noon longitudes were copied from ephemeredes.
Table 3 shows correspondences and differences between the lunar phase data in the 1559-Almanacke-GB and the 1559-Progno-GB.26
Table 3. Lunar phase data in the 1559-Almanacke-GB and the 1559-Progno-GB
|1||Last Quarter||1559, January 01||10:00||1559, January 01||10:00||1558, December 31||22:01|
|2||New Moon||January 08||16:19||January 08||05:58||1559, January 08||16:37|
|3||First Quarter||January 16||23:00||January 16||21:00||January 16||21:26|
|4||Full Moon||January 23||17:57||January 23||17:57||January 23||17:26|
|5||Last Quarter||January 30||12:00||January 30||12:00||January 30||10:42|
|6||New Moon||February 07||11:50||February 07||12:00||February 07||11:42|
|7||First Quarter||February 15||12:00||February 15||20:00||February 15||11:52|
|8||Full Moon||February 22||03:30||February 22||15:27||February 22||03:25|
|9||Last Quarter||March 01||02:00||February 28||--:--||March 01||01:32|
|10||New Moon||March 09||05:58||March 09||17:38||March 09||05:56|
|11||First Quarter||March 16||22:00||March 16||22:00||March 16||22:10|
|12||Full Moon||March 23||12:41||March 23||12:44||March 23||13:02|
|13||Last Quarter||March 30||19:00||March 30||19:00||March 30||18:05|
|14||New Moon||April 07||21:33||April 07||21:33||April 07||21:57|
|15||First Quarter||April 15||06:00||April 15||18:00||April 15||05:13|
|16||Full Moon||April 21||10:15||April 21||22:15||April 21||22:41|
|17||Last Quarter||April 29||12:00||April 29||12:00||April 29||11:39|
|18||New Moon||May 07||10:01||May 07||22:06||May 07||11:10|
|19||First Quarter||May 14||23:06||May 14||23:00||May 14||10:22|
|20||Full Moon||May 21||20:20||May 21||20:37||May 21||08:51|
|21||Last Quarter||May 29||03:00||May 29||17:00||May 29||05:25|
|22||New Moon||August 03||23:12||August 03||13:22||August 03||12:57|
|23||First Quarter||August 10||16:00||August 10||04:00||August 10||04:28|
|24||Full Moon||August 18||12:47||August 18||01:45||August 18||00:48|
|25||Last Quarter||August 26||11:00||August 26||02:00||August 26||03:06|
|26||New Moon||September 01||13:42||September 01||21:42||September 01||20:51|
|27||First Quarter||September 08||16:00||September 08||16:00||September 08||15:23|
|28||Full Moon||September 16||17:09||September 16||17:17||September 16||17:51|
|29||Last Quarter||September 24||15:00||September 24||15:00||September 24||14:18|
|30||First Quarter||December 06||23:00||December 06||23:00||December 06||22:46|
|31||Full Moon||December 14||19:20||December 14||19:22||December 14||18:58|
|32||Last Quarter||December 21||17:00||December 21||17:00||December 21||16:42|
|33||New Moon||December 29||19:48||December 29||27:48||December 28||19:12|
a. Correspondences between the 1559-Almanacke-GB and the 1559-Progno-GB
The number of lunar phases in the 1559-Almanacke-GB and the 1559-Progno-GB which are compared, is 33. In eleven cases, dates and times are the same: January 1, January 30, March 16, March 30, April 7, April 29, September 8, September 24, December 6, December 21 and December 29. This could mean that both data sources are based upon the same meridian. The meridian is not specified.
In the 1559-Almanacke-GB, the printed symbol for the First Quarter on December 6 is the Last Quarter symbol. The printed symbol for the Last Quarter on December 21 is the First Quarter symbol. These errors might be printer’s errors, since the times of these lunar phases in the 1559-Almanacke-GB match with the times in the 1559-Progno-GB.
In the 1559-Progno-GB, the time of 27:48, given for the New Moon on December 29, might also be a printer’s error. Originally, this time could have been 7:48, which corresponds with the time, given in the 1559-Almanacke-GB.
b. Differences between the 1559-Almanacke-GB and the 1559-Progno-GB
There are two date differences between the 1559-Almanacke-GB and the 1559-Progno-GB: January 8 vs. January 9 and March 1 vs. February 28. In six cases, the difference in time between the 1559-Almanacke-GB and the 1559-Progno-GB is close to 12 hours (February 22, March 9, April 15, April 21, May 7 and August 10). The cause of these differences might be a misreading of time indications, a translation error or a printer’s error. It is also possible that the text in the 1559-Progno-GB is correct. In the case of for example January 9, 1559, the text in the 1559-Progno-GB reads: The 9.day at five of the clocke, 58 minutes in the morning. This translation can only be the result of a literal translation of the original source text in the 1559-Almanach-F.
In the remaining cases, time differences vary from minutes to hours.
The differences show that several astrological sources (e.g. ephemeredes) are used and that a significant number of their data are incompatible.
In the 1557-Prono-F and the 1558-Prono-F, the lunar phases are specified by date, time and (apparently) lunar phase longitude. In his essay about the RPP, Halbronn depicted the first half of the February 1557 calendar, published in the 1557-Almanach-F.27 This calendar contains two lunar phases: a First Quarter on February 6 (at 5 heures a = 17:00) and a Full Moon on February 13 (at 2h.17.mi.a. = 14:17). According to this calendar, the noon lunar longitude on February 6 was 25 Taurus; the noon lunar longitude on February 13 was 3 Virgo. These data are listed below, together with data, according to AstroScoop Plus.
Table 4. Lunar phase data in the 1557-Almanach-F and the 1557-Prono-F
|Lunar phase||Date||Time||Date||Time||Lunar longitude||Date||Time||Lunar longitude|
|FQ||February 06||17:00||February 06||12:12||25:43 Ta||February 06||15:42||27:44 Ta|
|FM||February 13||14:17||February 13||14:08||03:54 Vi||February 13||13:48||04:41 Vi|
Table 5. Noon lunar longitudes in the 1557-Almanach-F and the 1557-Prono-F
|Date||Noon lunar longitude
|Noon lunar longitude
|February 06, 1559||25:00 Ta||25:43 Ta||25:34 Ta|
|February 13, 1559||03:00 Vi||03:54 Vi||03:41 Vi|
Tables 4 and 5 show two things. First: the times of the lunar phases in the 1557-Almanach-F differ from the times in the 1557-Prono F. Second: the given lunar longitudes in the 1557-Prono-F are not the longitudes at the time of the lunar phases, but the noon longitudes. These longitudes were copied from the ephemeris instead of calculated by means of interpolation. The quartercharts (horoscopes for the time the Sun is at 0 Aries, Cancer, Libra or Capricorn), were made in the same way: copying noon longitudes at the day of the solar ingress instead of interpolating time. Videl criticized this in 1557, but he did not discuss the incompatibility of lunar phase data.28
The difference in lunar phase data between the 1557-Almanach-F and the 1557-Prono-F corresponds with the findings regarding the 1559-Almanacke-GB and the 1559-Progno-GB, except for the fact that the 1559-Almanacke-GB and the 1559-Progno-GB are translated from one book (the 1559-Almanach-F), whereas the 1557-Almanach-F and the 1557-Prono-F are two separate books. In the case of the 1559-Almanach-F, there are two different sets of lunar phase data in one book. This looks strange. In the case of the 1557-Almanach-F and the 1557-Prono-F, there are two different sets of lunar phase data in two books. This also looks strange. The reason for this way of working did not become clear.
c. The September 1559 Lunar Eclipse
In the 1559-Almanacke-GB, the table for September 1559 does not contain a symbol or note, which makes it clear that the Full Moon of September 16 is in fact a Lunar Eclipse. In the 1559-Progno-GB, this Full Moon is classified as a Lunar Eclipse.
d. The simultaneous use of incompatible astrological sources
The 1559-Almanach-F is the source text of the 1559-Progno-GB and the Présages in the 1559-Almanacke-GB, which book also includes calendars and data regarding lunar phases.
The tables 3, 4 and 5 show that different astrological sources are used for 1557 and 1559. These sources contain different data regarding lunar phases and are therefore incompatible.
In the case of the Almanach pour l’an M.D.LXVI (1566), Brind’Amour noticed that the noon lunar longitude tables for each day in the were mostly copied from ephemeredes by Moletius. Sometimes, they were copied from ephemeredes by Carellus and Simus. Data regarding lunar phases and eclipses in 1566 were copied from ephemeredes by Carellus, Moletius, Simus and Stadius. According to Brind’Amour, Nostradamus owned most of the ephemeredes which circulated during his lifetime and used them all.29
The findings regarding lunar phase data in the prediction series for 1557 and 1559 confirm the finding by Brind’Amour about the simultaneous use of ephemeredes regarding 1566. In the listings for 1557 and 1559, the lunar phase data are incompatible. The question is if Nostradamus overlooked or ignored this incompatibility.
The tables 3, 4 and 5 show that the given lunar longitudes are the result of copying dates, times and noon lunar longitudes instead of calculating lunar phase longitudes by means of interpolation. This might imply that Nostradamus did not calculate a complete horoscope for each lunar phase, but simply worked out the lunar phases as they occurred by aspect in the signs, sometimes filled up with discussions of other aspects, regardless of the specification of date and time. Interpolation undoubtedly would have revealed the incompatibility of lunar phase data, especially if horoscopes were calculated. The use of incompatible data would irrevocably have resulted in different house cusp longitudes.
Astrological aspects and quartercharts
In the 1559-Progno-GB, a number of aspects and quartercharts are mentioned. These data are compared with AstroScoop data. It is obvious that present-day software can never reveal the zodiacal longitudes, listed in the ephemeredes in Nostradamus’ lifetime. But to some extent, present-day software can indicate the nature of the astrological remarks and in some cases, there is a kind of cohesion between successive astrological data.
a. January 1559
The prediction for the Last Quarter on December 21, 1559, became mixed in the predictions for January 1559. This Last Quarter was described like this: the 21. at 5.houres, passing the hed of the dragon wyth a quadryne aspect of Mercury (Sun conjunct Mercury on 10 Capricorn, squaring the Moon on 10 Libra). The remark about the hed of the dragon is incomprehensible. The Caput Draconis (head of the dragon) is on 26 Pisces and has no aspect with the Sun, the Moon or one of the planets.30
The Mars-Jupiter retrograde square of August 10, 1559, with Mars in Sagittarius, became also mixed in the predictions for January 1559 (Mars: 16 Sagittarius, Jupiter retrograde: 16 Pisces). Saturn is described as being vexed, which might refer to the Moon-Saturn opposition on August 10, 1559 (Moon: 7 Sagittarius, Saturn: 6 Gemini).
Saturn is also qualified as combust. The word combust means that a planet (the Moon excepted) is conjunct the Sun within 3-8 degrees of arc. On August 10, 1559, this was not the case (Sun: 27 Leo, Saturn: 6 Gemini). In 1557, Videl criticized the abuse of the word combust while discussing Nostradamus’ quarterchart for the summer of 1557. In that chart, the Sun was on 0 Cancer and Saturn on 6 Taurus. In the quarterchart for the winter of 1557 (Sun: 0 Capricorn), Saturn retrograde on 2 Taurus was also qualified as combust. In both charts, the Caput Draconis was also in Taurus, which made the author of this essay conclude that the word combust was used to describe a situation in which a planet and the Caput Draconis were in the same zodiacal sign, a phenomenon that could also be derived from astrological data in quatrain 04-67.31 On August 10, 1559, however, Saturn was on 6 Gemini and the Caput Draconis on 3 Aries. It is not clear why Saturn in this case was qualified as combust.
In the reference to the quarterchart for the summer of 1559, Mars was situated in the 8 and Jupiter retrograde in the 12. In #170 in the 1559-Commentaires, the text reads: Mars dans la VIIIe & icy dans la XIIe Jupiter…32 This means that Mars is situated in Scorpio, the eighth sign of the Zodiac, and Jupiter is in Pisces, the twelfth sign. On June 13, 1559, the Sun was on 0 Cancer and Mars retrograde on 8 Sagittarius. Its retrogradation is not mentioned in the 1559-Progno-GB or in item #170 in the 1559-Commentaires. Then, according to the 1559-Progno-GB, Jupiter is retrograde. In item #170 of the 1559-Commentaires, nothing is written about this. Since the items in the RPP are not always pure quotations, but many times summaries or shortened passages, this absence does not mean that in the 1559-Almanach-F Jupiter was direct. The matter is interesting because Jupiter was direct until June 27, 1559, i.e. two weeks after the entrance of the Sun in Cancer.
A remark about Saturn, Jupiter and Venus is difficult to understand. It is not clear if this is related to the First Quarter of December 21, 1559 or to the quarterchart for the summer of 1559.
In the prediction for the Fist Quarter on December 6, 1559, it is written that Mars is favourable for France until 1565. No time key is given which explains this prediction. It is also written that in 1560 Mars will be in his proper house, i.e. the sign of Aries. Mars arrived on 0 Aries on January 13, 1560.
b. February 1559
Together with the Last Quarter of February 28, 1559, there was a mentioning of other squares, but they were not specified. The squares are: a Moon-Venus square (Moon: 20 Sagittarius, Venus: 19 Pisces), a Mercury-Mars square (Mercury: 8 Pisces retrograde, Mars: 7 Sagittarius) and a Mars-Jupiter square (Mars: 7 Sagittarius, Jupiter: 1 Pisces). Also, a Sun-Saturn sextile was mentioned (February 28, 1559: Sun: 20 Pisces, Saturn: 19 Taurus).
c. March 1559
The prediction for March 1559 starts with a reference to the quarterchart of March 11,1559. The noon solar longitude: 0:02 Aries. There is also a reference to the Sunne at 21. from Pisces. This seems to be a reference to March 1, 1559, when the Sun was located on that degree.
While discussing the New Moon on March 9, 1559, there is a reference to the opposite of Mars. During the discussion of the First Quarter on March 16, also an opposition with Mars is mentioned. According to AstroScoop data, there was no opposition with Mars on either of these dates.
d. April 1559
In the prediction for April 1559, a revolution of 9.circles of Venus and seven of the Sunne is mentioned. It is not clear what these words mean. The words the constitution with in Aquarius seem to refer to 18 Aquarius, the lunar phase longitude of the Moon during the Last Quarter of April 29, 1559. There is a reference to the quadrine aspectes of the Moon. The Moon (18 Aquarius) squares the Sun (18 Taurus), Mercury (16 Taurus) and Saturn (25 Taurus).
A Venus-Saturn conjunction is mentioned. The text in the 1559-Progno-GB reads:
… which shalbe ended and broughte to passe the 25.of this present in the conjunction of Saturne with Venus…
Item #98 in the 1559-Commentaires reads:
… qui se parachevera dans le 23 du present, en la conjonction de Saturne à Venus.33
The 1559-Progno-GB gives April 25; the 1559-Commentaires give April 23. In this case, 16th-century epehemeredes should reveal which date is at stake. The Venus-Saturn conjunction became full on April 22, 1559.
There is also a mentioning of an association of Mercury and Jupiter in April 1559. This might be a reference to a Mercury-Jupiter sextile around April 28, 1559 (Mercury: 14 Taurus; Jupiter: 13 Pisces).
e. May 1559
In the prediction for May 1559, there is a reference to a quarterchart (figure Vernale) and to the 1559-Prono-F:
And that because of the figure Vernale erected, and the middle of the aire.25.degrees. 28.minutes of Libra, the Moone, the Sunne, Venus and the dragons head, at 21.degrees by the.12. In the revolution of the thirde, and the rest as men shal see by the revolutions in my Prognostication…
The word vernale means: spring. These lines contain a reference to a quarterchart, perhaps the one for March 11, 1559, when the Sun entered Aries. This chart was discussed in the predictions for March 1559, but the time of the ingress of the Sun in Aries was not given.
If the words and the middle of the aire.25.degrees. 28.minutes of Libra refer to the zodiacal longitude of the MC in this quarterchart, they mean that on March 11, 1559, the entrance of the Sun in Aries took place around midnight. The entrance took place on March 11, 1559, around noon. This results in a zodiacal longitude of the MC in the last degrees of Pisces.
There is another reference in these lines: the reference to quartercharts in the 1559-Prono-F. One wonders about the ingress-data for spring 1559 in the 1559-Prono-F.
While discussing the New Moon on May 7, there is a reference to two squares: one by Mars, one by Venus. Both planets are in square with Jupiter on 15 Pisces (Mars: 18 Sagittarius, retrograde, Venus: 15 Gemini). The remark about many and diverse conjunctions of the good and pleasant planets is difficult to understand. The Moon, Venus and Jupiter are the benefics (good and pleasant planets). The New Moon on 26 Taurus is conjunct Saturn on 26 Taurus and Mercury on 2 Gemini. In the next weeks, there are conjunctions between the Sun and Venus, the Moon and Venus and Mercury and Venus (all in Gemini), but all of them will square Jupiter in Pisces.
While discussing the New Moon, Saturn was mentioned with the words the Occidentalitie of colde Saturne. No Sun-Moon-Saturn conjunction seems to be meant here.
Next, there is a reference to a Moon-Jupiter conjunction in the 12, the attendant is Libra. The Moon-Jupiter conjunction occurred much later, on 17 Pisces on May 29, 1559.
Next, the First Quarter on May 14, 1559 is discussed, with a reference to a Mars-Venus opposition, with Mars in 9 (Venus: 21 Gemini, Mars: 17 Sagittarius, retrograde). In the explanation of the impact of Mars in Sagittarius, there is a reference to the Arabian astrologer Albumasar.34
When the Full Moon of May 21 is discussed, Venus and Mercury are in 4, i.e. Cancer. AstroScoop data locate both planets on the last degree of Gemini.
Saturn is described as signifying wind, which might refer to a location in Gemini. A Sun-Saturn conjunction is mentioned twice, both times in Gemini. This is not confirmed by AstroScoop data (May 21, 1559: Sun: 9 Gemini, Saturn: 28 Taurus). The Sun-Saturn conjunction occurred on May 7, 1559, together with a New Moon. Sun, Moon and Saturn were conjunct on 26 Taurus on May 7, 1559, but this triple conjunction was not discussed when the New Moon on May 7 was discussed. An astrological text does not necessarily need to contain all occurring aspects, but this triple conjunction is too important to omit. A similar case occurs in the predictions for November 1559.
Together with the Last Quarter of May 29, a Sun-Mars opposition is mentioned (Sun: 17 Gemini, Mars: 12 Sagittarius, retrograde).
f. June 1559
Together with the New Moon on June 5, a Mercury-Jupiter trine is mentioned (Mercury: 19 Cancer, Jupiter: 18 Pisces). Venus was on 18 Cancer, conjunct Mercury, trine Jupiter. This is not mentioned in the 1559-Progno-GB.
The First Quarter is given to be on June 12, 1559, 15:35, Moon in Virgo. On this day, the noon lunar longitude was 29 Virgo. The First Quarter took place at 15:04 True Local Time Venice, with the Moon on 1 Libra. There was also a reference to the dragon’s tail, i.e. the Cauda Draconis. Its longitude was 6 Libra, conjunct the Moon and squaring the Sun. Together with the First Quarter, a Mercury-Venus conjunction was mentioned (Mercury: 23 Cancer, Venus: 26 Cancer).
Together with the Last Quarter on June 27, 1559, a square aspect of Venus is discussed. This is not confirmed by AstroScoop data. Venus on 15 Leo was in trine with the Moon on 15 Aries and had no other aspects. The only square in this configuration was a Moon-Mercury square (Mercury: 20 Cancer, retrograde).
g. July 1559
The New Moon of July 5 is joined with Mercury oriental (New Moon: 22 Cancer, Mercury: 15 Cancer, retrograde). The remark that Sun, Moon, Mercury and Jupiter are in water-signs, is correct. There are no other planets in water-signs.
At the time of the Full Moon on July 19, Mars is in square with Venus (Venus: 10 Virgo, Mars: 8 Sagittarius).
At the time of the Last Quarter on July 27, there is a reference to a Sun-Mars trine (Sun: 13 Leo, Mars: 10 Sagittarius). There is also a reference to 13 Taurus, which might be a reference to the Moon longitude on this day.
h. August 1559
Parts of the prediction for August 1559 were mixed in the predictions for January 1559. The text of the chapter, dealing with August 1559, is incomplete.
There is a mentioning of a sextile aspect ioyned to Saturne, but AstroScoop data do not show wat these words mean. They might refer to a Mercury-Saturn sextile (Mercury: 4 Leo, Saturn: 6 Gemini).
i. September 1559
Together with the New Moon on September 1, 1559, an opposition with Mars in the tenth house is mentioned. Usually, these kind of indications refer to zodiacal signs. These words might be interpreted as a reference to Mars in Capricorn. Mars was on 27 Sagittarius, in square with Mercury in Libra and the Caput Draconis in Aries and in sextile with Venus on 2 Scorpio. The New Moon (19 Virgo) was in opposition with Jupiter retrograde (13 Pisces). In the horoscope for this New Moon, Jupiter was situated in the tenth house. However, in the examination of data, no structural evidence has been found that horoscopes were calculated for all lunar phases. In the prediction for October 1559, there is a reference to Venus at the ende of this moneth in the 10.house. Venus started moving through Capricorn from October 29, 1559.
In the prediction for September 1, 1559, there is a reference to February 12, 1559, on which day a prominent person, one of the greatest, shall fall. The astrological fundament of this prediction might have been Mars on 29 Scorpio, squared by Venus (28 Aquarius), Jupiter (27 Aquarius) and (to a lesser degree of impact) the Sun (4 Pisces).
Together with the First Quarter on September 8, 1559, a conjunction with Mars is mentioned (Moon: 25 Sagittarius, Mars: 1 Capricorn).
j. October 1559
Together with the New Moon on October 1, 1559, a square of Mars is mentioned (New Moon on 18 Libra, Mars on 15 Capricorn).
Together with the First Quarter on October 8, 1559, a conjunction with Mars is mentioned (Moon: 25 Capricorn, Mars: 15 Capricorn). Also, an aspect between Venus and Jupiter is mentioned. This turns out to be a square: Venus: 11 Sagittarius, Jupiter retrograde: 9 Pisces). There is a correct reference to Mercury becoming retrograde between this First Quarter and the next Full Moon.
Together with the Full Moon on October 16, 1559, a square with Mars in mentioned (Sun: 3 Scorpio, Moon: 3 Taurus, Mars: 26 Capricorn, orb of this square: 7 degrees).
Together with the New Moon on October 30, 1559, a Mars-Jupiter trine is mentioned (Mars: 6 Aquarius, Saturn retrograde: 5 Gemini).
k. November 1559
At the beginning of this chapter is a reference to the quarterchart for the autumn of 1559. According to the text in the 1559-Progno-GB, the date of this chart is September 13, 1559, in the first point of Sagittarius. Leo in the first house, and the moste parte of the planets constituted in signes of winter the two in Capricorn… It seems that a chart is at stake with Leo rising, but this is not confirmed by AstroScoop data. The reference to the first degree of Sagittarius is unclear. As for the planets in winter signs: if this means a reference to planets in Capricorn, Aquarius or Pisces, the Moon is in Aquarius, Mars in Capricorn and Jupiter in Pisces. Mars is the only planet in Capricorn.
In the prediction for the First Quarter on November 7, 1559, there is a reference to Jupiter and Mars together with some fixed stars. Jupiter on 9 Pisces was conjunct Achernar; Mars on 11 Aquarius was conjunct Castra and Nashira, and close to Sadalsuud and Deneb Algedi.35 There was also a Mars-Jupiter sextile mentioned. According to AstroScoop data, no sextile occurred around November 7, 1559. In October, Mars and Jupiter were in sextile and from December 4, 1559, both planets were in Pisces, as written in the prediction for December 1559.
The Full Moon on November 15, 1559, is described to be voyde of any aspect. The words voyde of aspect mean: no aspect. Strange, since at Full Moon, the Moon is in opposition with the Sun. AstroScoop data point to a different situation: Sun: 3 Sagittarius, Moon: 3 Gemini, Jupiter: 9 Pisces and Saturn retrograde: 4 Gemini. The aspects: Full Moon, Sun opposition Saturn, Moon conjunct Saturn, Sun and Moon square Jupiter, Jupiter square Saturn. Again, as in the case of the New Moon on May 7, 1559, a Moon-Saturn conjunction is overlooked as well as four other major aspects. This is strange, since together with the Last Quarter on November 22, 1559, a Moon-Jupiter opposition and a Moon-Saturn square are mentioned. (Moon: 10 Virgo, Jupiter: 10 Pisces, Saturn retrograde: 3 Gemini).
Together with the New Moon on November 29, 1559, a Moon-Mercury conjunction is mentioned, occurring before the New Moon. (New Moon: 17 Sagittarius, Mercury: 5 Sagittarius).
l. December 1559
Mars is said to be in the 12.in exile at the beginning of December 1559. Mars started moving through Pisces from December 4, 1559.
There is also a reference to the quarterchart for the winter of 1559. According to AstroScoop data, the chart was dated on December 13, 1559. In this chart, both Mars and Jupiter were in Pisces, as described in the text of the 1559-Progno-G.
This chapter contains the text of the prediction for the New Moon on December 3 and the one on December 29. The text of the other lunar phases became mixed in the chapter for January 1559.
Astrological references in the 1559-Commentaires
The 1559-Progno-GB and the 1559-Commentaires provide an indirect access to the contents of the 1559-Almanach-F. The 1559-Progno-GB is likely to be the most close to the contents of the 1559-Almanach-F, whereas the 1559-Commentaires look like an extract.
In the 1559-Commentaires, the kind of lunar phase is seldom given and the date of the lunar phase is almost never given. Weather circumstances, indicated by the lunar phases, are not commented.
In the 1559-Progno-GB, the prediction for the New Moon on March 9 begins as follows:
The newe mone the 9.day at 5.of the clocke.38.minutes, redownding to the opposite of Mars, shalbe rainy and windy, and having lefte the evill weather, shall tende somewhat to moderation and temperatness. Yet this mone maketh apparance of privy conspiracies against some rulers.The practicing and machination shalbe great. Some that willingly would absent themselves shalbe discovered. The knowledge of the losse shalbe perceived.
In item #58 of the 1559-Commentaires, this line reads as follows:
Ceste Lune fait apparance de clandestines conspirations alencontre de quelques Prefectes. La machination sera grande, seront decouvers aucuns qui volontairement s’absenteront. La congnoissance de la perte sera apperceuë…36
Item #58 is the translation of the second sentence of the quote from the 1559-Progno-GB. In the 1559-Commentaires, the first sentence, containing the kind of lunar phase, its date, its time and its impact on weather circumstances, is not quoted. Most of the other lunar phases are treated the same way.
Sometimes, the efforts to erase references to lunar phases have been tremendous, as the next example shows.
In a part of the prediction for the Last Quarter on April 29, 1559, in the 1559-Progno-GB, the text reads:
The first inventours and conspiratours shalbe those that shal first repent. Their fantasies shall passe away within the 12.17 Than the first day of the ful of this present moone, they shalbe made frendes: but the greatest trouble of all shalbe toward the clercke…
These sentences are quoted in items #100 and 101 of the 1559-Commentaires:
Item #100: Les premiers inventeurs & conspirateurs serond ceux qui premierement s’en repentiront, leurs fantasies se passeront dans la XIIe, le jour descouvrira le tout, puis le 21 de ce mois seront faits amis.37
Item #101: Mais le plus grand trouble que soit sera envers le Clerc…38
In the 1559-Progno-GB, the number 12 is printed in Arab notation instead of Roman notation. The number 17 does not occur in the text in the 1559-Commentaires. The words le jour descouvrira le tout are not included in the 1559-Progno-GB.
The last part of item #100 (puis le 21 de ce mois seront faits amis) refers to April 21, 1559. On this day, a Full Moon occurred. The text of the 1559-Progno-GB reads: Than the first day of the ful of this present moone they shalbe made frendes. Previously, the date of this Full Moon was given in the 1559-Progno-GB. In the 1559-Commentaires, the April 21 Full Moon was not mentioned, so the reference to it in item #100 simply had to be converted in its date.
Chevignard supposes that most astrological references were excluded from the Commentaires in order to hide Nostradamus’ weak arithmetical skills.39 There is also a different point of view possible, not in favour of Nostradamus, but in favour of the author of the RPP.
The subtitle of the RPP reads:
Oeuvre qui se peut dire a la verité, Les merveilles de nostre temps, ou se verra à l’oeil tout l’histoire de noz’troubles et guerres civiles de la France dez le temps qu’elles ont commence iusques à leur extiere fin et periode non seulement, mais aussi plusieurs choses rares et singulieres advenues et à venir en l’estat des plus puissans empires, royaumes et principautez qui aujourd’hui levent le chef sur la terre.
The subtitle shows that the RPP deals with the history of troubles and wars in France from their beginning until their end, and with exceptional events, which occurred in the leading countries and empires. A discussion of weather predictions does not belong to this kind of report. The subtitle further indicates that not the Almanachs and Pronostications are the departing point, but history (civil wars etc.) in an attempt to relate it to several sets of predictions. The RPP is not an anthology, it is a result of connecting history to predictions. Such an act gives room for realizing political purposes such as legitimating one’s political preference. For example, it has been demonstrated elsewhere on this Site that De Chavigny went out of his way to prove that Nostradamus correctly predicted the decease of Henry II and the specific circumstances.40
A second important aspect of the Commentaires is that most of the dates and times of lunar phases were omitted. By doing so, it became possible to relate predictions to events which occurred on another date, sometimes much later. An example of this can be found in the comment on item #17. This item reads:
Après, non loin de ce dernier quart seront de si subites mutations que ceux qui seront hauts seront bas, & ceux qui seront bas & moyens seront hautement elevez.41
The comment was given in Ianus Francois, p.126:
En 1563, grands changements après la paix d’Amboise.42
The dernier quart (Last Quarter) was the January 30, 1559 Last Quarter. Mentioning this lunar phase would have made it necessary to explain why the impact of this lunar phase would occur four years later.
In a number of cases, the 1559-Commentaires present a kind of summary, which without the original source text hardly can be noticed. An example of this can be read in item #130 in the predictions for June 1559 in the 1559-Commentaires:
Le mal aux Ecclesiastiques presagé par l’eclipse est plus tost icy, & en plusieurs lieux provenir par mutination en la religion. DIEU pacifiera le tout.43
In the 1559-Progno-GB, the full text reads:
Wherefore the presage of prophecie of the euvll unto the priestes and bysshoppes by the Eclipse presageth, rather here and in many other places to comme by mutation in religion than in sickness, although there shalbe of both. Well nowe we must remitte all unto God, who wil pacifie all. I would here declare mervaylous great pointes:but it is better to leave them out than to write them.
The summarizing in item #130 introduces a time path (le mal […] est plus tost icy), which is not given in the 1559-Progno-GB. The references to sickness and the fact that Nostradamus abandons further explanation, are not quoted.
Layout differences between the 1559-Progno-GB and the 1559-Commentaires
The text of the 1559-Progno-GB is printed in the same type of letter. In the case of Latin quotations, such as the one in #141 in the 1559-Commentaires, there is no distinction in the 1559-Progno-GB by means of for example italics or different intervals.44 Another distinction is that the word God is printed as either God or god, whereas in the 1559-Commentaires most of the times God is printed in capital letters: DIEU, as can be seen in #141.
London versus Antwerp
It was mentioned that the 1559-Progno-GB was printed in London instead of in Antwerp. In this context, there is a remarkable translation difference between item #205 in the prediction for October 1559 in the 1559-Commentaires and the text in the 1559-Progno-GB.
Item #205 reads:
…Mars dans ce mois favorisera à plusieurs païs d’Allemagne, d’Hirlande, & autres: à Brandebourg, Ausbourg,…
In the 1559-Progno-GB, the translation reads:
… Mars in this mone shal favour many countreis of Germany, and some places of Irlande and Flaunders, Brandeburge, Ausburg…
The September 1559 Lunar Eclipse
The 1559-Progno-GB contains many references to the September 1559 Lunar Eclipse, regarding its impact as well as its time span. These references, as well as interpretations of previous eclipses, will be treated in a forthcoming essay.
Summary and conclusions
The 1559-Progno-GB is a translation of the predictions for each month, as published in the 1559-Almanach-F. Compared with the 1559-Almanach-F, the translation is incomplete. The thirteen Présages, the noon lunar tables and the introduction letter are not included.
It has been demonstrated that parts of the text of the predictions for August and December 1559 were included in the text of the predictions for January 1559. One part of the prediction for August 1559 got lost. In one case, the translation was silently altered in order to maintain continuity. This means that, although during the production process the mix of texts was noticed, nothing was done to restore the original translation.
References to writing dates raise a series of questions about the way the astrological aspects as they occurred in 1559 were worked out: chronologically or at random, as the 1559-Progno-GB suggests.
Examination of astrological contents showed the simultaneous use of incompatible sources. This incompatibility also occurs in other Almanachs and Pronostications. It is possible that this is without consequences, since ephemeris data are copied rather than interpolated.
Many quotes in the 1559-Commentaires are close to the text in the 1559-Progno-GB. However, one must keep in mind that the 1559-Commentaires (i.c. the RPP) are not a set of annotated quotations. The object of the RPP is to relate a series of specific events (civil wars etc. in France) to Almanachs and Pronostications, sometimes by altering or neglecting the context of these predictions. Sometimes, astrological data are omitted in order to make it possible to relate astrological configurations to events which took place in other years. Sometimes, summary-quotes in the RPP are partly the result of an interpretation of the context.
T. W. M. van Berkel
De Meern, October 27, 2003
- R. Benazra: Répertoire Chronologique Nostradamique. Paris, 1990.
- P. Brind’Amour: L’astrologie chez Nostradamus.
- B. Chevignard: Présages de Nostradamus. Saint-Amand, 1999.
- V. Robson, B.Sc: The fixed stars and constellations in astrology. Wellingborough, 1976 (1923).
- Schors (publishers): AstroScoop Plus for Windows 9x/NT. Amsterdam, 1999.
1 Halbronn : Pour une relecture du Recueil des Présages Prosaïques. Retour
2 The full title The Prognostication of Maister Michael Nostradamus [...] 1559 is abbreviated into 1559-Progno-GB. Likewise, the Almanach pour 1559 is abbreviated into 1559-Almanach-F, La Grande Pronostication [...] 1559 into 1559-Prono-F, the Almanacke for the year [...] 1559 into 1559-Almanacke-GB, etc. Retour
3 Benazra, p. 30 and Les Pronostications et Almanachs de Nostradamus. Retour
4 Chevignard, p. 326. In this essay, the Extrait des commentaires sur l’an 1559 and D’un autre presage sur la mesme année are abbreviated into 1559-Commentaires. In the RPP, these two works are the first two parts of book 4. The comment on the September 1559 Lunar Eclipse is the third part of this book. Retour
5 Halbronn : Pour une relecture du Recueil des Présages Prosaïques. Retour
6 All calculations with AstroScoop Plus were done for True Local Time in Venice. This is based upon Videl’s assumption that the ephemeredes, from which Nostradamus copied noon longitudes, were calculated for the meridian of Venice (Videl, section B1). Unless otherwise indicated, all astrological data are calculated with AstroScoop Plus. Retour
7 This date corresponds with the one in the calendar in the 1559-Almanacke-GB. According to AstroScoop data, it occurred on December 31, 1558. According to the 1559-Almanacke-GB and AstroScoop data, the NM occurred on January 8, 1559. What counts, are the assumptions in the 1559-Progno-GB. Retour
8 Chevignard, p. 358. Retour
9 Chevignard, p. 360. Retour
10 Chevignard, p. 345. Retour
11 Chevignard, p. 346. Retour
12 Chevignard, p. 346. Retour
13 Chevignard, p. 346. Retour
14 Chevignard, p. 357. Retour
15 Chevignard, p. 357. Retour
16 Chevignard, p. 326. Retour
17 Benazra, private correspondence. Retour
18 Chevignard, p. 328. Retour
19 Chevignard, p. 349. Retour
20 Chevignard, p. 371. Retour
21 D’un autre presage sur la mesme année  contains comments on the 1559-Prono-F. Retour
22 Benazra, p. 29. Retour
23 Chevignard, p. 393 - 417 and 418 - 442. Retour
24 These lunar phases are taken from Chevignard, p.415. Retour
25 According to AstroScoop data, the lunar phase longitude of the Moon on January 23, 1559 was 14 Leo and the lunar phase longitude on June 12, 1559 was 1 Libra. Retour
26 The used photocopy of the 1559-Almanacke-GB contains the tables for January, February, March, April, May, August, September and December 1559. In the table in this essay, all given times in the 1559-Almanacke-GB and the 1559-Progno-GB are converted in 24-hour notation, counting from midnight to midnight, with the exception of the time of the New Moon on December 29, 1559 in the 1559-Progno-GB. The mixture of lunar phases in the prediction for January 1559 in the 1559-Progno-GB is revised. Retour
27 Halbronn : Pour une relecture du Recueil des Présages Prosaïques. Retour
28 Videl, section B1. Retour
29 Brind’Amour, 1993. Retour
30 Unless otherwise indicated, all zodiacal longitudes are rounded to degrees of arc. Retour
31 Van Berkel : Criticized by colleagues (Nostradamus vs. Videl) in: Nostradamus, astrology and the Bible, research results, essay: Nostradamus and his contemporaries. Retour
32 Chevignard, p. 346. Retour
33 Chevignard, p. 337. Retour
34 Albumasar: Abu Ma’Shar, 9th century AD. Retour
35 The positions of the Fixed Stars for the 16th century were derived from the tables of Robson (Robson, p. 108 - 115). Retour
36 Chevignard, p. 333. Retour
37 Chevignard, p. 337. Retour
38 Chevignard, p. 338. Retour
39 Chevignard, p. 71 - 72. Retour
40 Van Berkel : Les Significations de l’Eclipse: its origin, its disqualification. Retour
41 Chevignard, p. 328. Retour
42 Chevignard, p. 328. Retour
43 Chevignard, p. 341. Retour
44 Chevignard, p. 342 : L’eclipse equinoctial presage multum excessum frequentem & turbulentem. Aequinoctailia enim signa ea immuniunt quae religionis & aequabilitatis sunt, quia religio medium quiddam est inter nos & DEUM maximumque vinculum conservandae societatis. Retour
Tous droits réservés © 2003 T. W. M. van Berkel